Bologna School

Bologna, unlike other school systems with a complete system of Violin production, the relationship between the teachers and the students were not related and no rules required in violin production, the figure was fatter comparing with others, the curvature was irregular. After 1690, Giovanni. Tonoli (c. 1640-1713) developed a more regular and systematic system of piano models and it was brought into Venice. Giovanni passed to his son, Carlo. Tonoli (c. 1675-1730) , and then passed to future generations, Carlo. Antonio. Giovanni (1721-1768) . 1720-1730 years later, Giovanni. Tononi left Bologna, Don. Niccolò. Amati (fc. 1725-c. 1750) , Giovanni. Gui Da Tusi (1687-c. 1760) followed by the time of period ,a wider radian was presented and finished products were not very precise (left and right sides is not symmetrical) .

Giovanni Tonini passed his craft on to his son Carlo Tononi (c. 1675-1730) and later his grandson Carlo Antonio Giovanni (1721-1768) . After 1730, Giovanni Tononi left Dom Nicolo Amati (fc.1725-c.1750) and not long after Giovanni Floreno Guidanti (1687-c. 1760) made a name for himself as an outstanding luthier. Violins during this time had wider arches and the finished products were often not very refined, with the two sides not completely symmetrical.

Between the years 1780 and 1850, there appeared to be a gap in the Bologna school of violin making. Up to the 1850s, Raffale Fiorini (1828-1898) led Bologna into the modern violin making industry, bringing the method of external mold to Bologna’s luthier craft. By the 1920s, the Bologna school began to flourish and held a special place in Italy’s world of violin making. Both the exterior and timbre of the Bologna violins were highly praised. Luthiers who followed the model of the Bologna school later spread across various regions of Italy and also thrived prosperously.

Dom Nicolo Amati, fc.1725-c. 1750

One of the three most important violin productions in Bologna System. Born in Bologna in 1662, died in Bologna in 1750. His real name was Melchion or Marchioni, in fact, there is no connection between the famous Amati family of Cremona, there was also no record between the teacher and the student; however, feature works were full with characteristics.

Giovanni Floreno Guidanti, 1687-c. 1760

凡尼.圭達圖斯(Giovanni Floreno Guidanti, 1687-c. 1760)是波隆納(Bologna)古系統三大重要製琴師之一。波隆納學派初期不如義大利其他學派具有完整的製琴系統,製琴師之間也沒有明顯師承關係,製琴方法上也沒有規則的技法,其製琴特色通常為:體型較胖、提琴弧度不規則。喬凡尼.圭達圖斯(則是該學派1730年代重要的製琴師,常使用金黃色的漆,選用高品質的木頭,提琴面板及背板的弧度較大。

Giovanni Battista Gabrielli, 1736-1787

Giovanni Battista Gabrielli was born in Florence, and he was also the best luthier in Florence after Pier Lorenzo Vangelisti. Gabrielli’s works also presented the Florence style. Many luthiers had worked for him once, including Carcassi brothers (1737-1775, c. 1745-1786), Gaspare Piattellini (fc. 1738-1780), Bartolomeo Bimbi (c. 1750-1770), and etc.

Giovanni Varotti, fl c. 1775-c. 1825

凡尼‧瓦羅蒂(Giovanni Varotti , fl c. 1775 – c. 1825) 是波隆納(Bologna)古系統三大重要製琴師之一。早期的作品以特定的形式製作,後期的作品品質較高,背板弧度大,漆色呈現紅褐色。喬凡尼‧瓦羅蒂通常會在其作品上署名”Joannes Varotti Fecit”或是”Bononiae Anno 17XX”。

Giovanni Tononi, c. 1640-1713

Born in Bologna in 1640, died in 1713. His violin skill was inherited from his father, Felice Tononi, he was based on Amati style as a model, and in some respects, he foreshadowed the style of Venice. The F hole was longer and beautiful, but the top of the violin got cut out. Beside its beautiful appearance and distributed orange gloss; Giovanni had produced high-quality violin both with its appearance and sound quality. His son, Carlo‧Tononi (c. 1675-1730) inherited his skills, then approached to Venice in 1717.

Lorenzo Arcangoli, 1825-1850

Worked in Arezzo and Florence, Arcangoli used general models that most of the luthiers adopted. His works’ quality were instable, and often in orange varnish. Arcangoli’s works also lack the sonorous sound.

Giovanni Antonio Marchi, 1727-1805

凡尼‧安東尼奧‧馬吉(Giovanni Antonio Marchi, 1727-1805)也被紀載為”Joannes”或” Gian Antonio Marchi”,他於1727年生於波隆納,1805年逝世。他曾在1786年寫了一本專著(現存於波隆納),書中描述如何裝配一把小提琴,是一本關於製琴技巧非常珍貴的資料。和同一時代的許多製琴師相似,馬吉的提琴作品延續了波隆納魯特琴製造家Tononi的良好傳統,他設計的琴上半身比較瘦小,音色甜美極具穿透力。